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SAF 2205


General description

Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205™ is a duplex stainless steel (austenitic-ferritic). It is characterised by:

Chemical composition (nominal) %

C
max
Si
max
Mn
max
P
max
S
max
CrNiMoN
0.0301.02.00.0300.015225.53.20.18


Standards

Sandvik Grade: SANMAC SAF 2205
ASTM: S31803
EN: 1.4462*
W Nr.: 1.4462
DIN: X 2 CrNiMoN 22 5 3
SS: 2377
* According to EN 10088, valid for sheet/plate, strip, semifinished products, bars, rods and sections for general purposes.

Product standards
      Bars and shapes:
              ASTM A479
              EN 10088-3*
              ASTM A276
      Billets:
              EN 10088-3*
              SEW 400

Certificate
Status according to EN 10204/3.1.B


Forms of supply

Bar and billet
Round bar is supplied in the solution annealed and quenched and peel-turned condition. The principal size range is 20 – 350 mm.
Billets, round as well as round-cornered square, are produced in sizes 80 – 350 mm.

Other products


Mechanical properties

The following values apply to material in the solution annealed and quenched condition. Bar with sizes larger than 160 mm may have slightly lower values. More detailed formation can be supplied on request.

At 20C (68F)
Metric units
Proof strength
R
p0.2a)
MPa
min
Rp1.0a)
MPa
min
Tensile strength, Rm
MPa
Elong.
A
b)
%
min
Hardness Brinell

max.
450500660-86025270

Imperial units
Proof strength
R
p0.2a)
ksi
min
Rp1.0a)
ksi
min
Tensile strength, Rm

ksi
Elong.
A
b)
%
min
Hardness Brinell


max.
657396-12525270

1 MPa = 1 N/mm 2
a) R
p0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength respectively.
b) Based on L
0 = 5.65S0 , where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-sectional area.


      Figure 1. Comparision of proof strength, 0.2% offset, of SANMAC SAF 2205, high alloy austenitics and other grades, for material in the solution-annealed and quenched condition.

Impact strength
Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 possesses good impact strength both at room temperature and at low temperatures. Fig. 2 shows typical impact energy values for Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 bars in different sizes at -50C (-58F). The values apply for standard Charpy-V specimens (10 x 10 mm, 0.39 x 0.39 inch) taken in the longitudinal direction of the bar. For dimensions larger than 160 mm (6.3 inch) the impact strength is somewhat lower. Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 bar stock programme guarantees an impact strength of 70 J (52 ft lb) at -50C (-58F).


      Figure 2. Typical impact stength values for SANMAC SAF 2205 bar at -50C (-58F).

At high temperatures

If Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 is exposed for prolonged periods to temperatures exceeding 280 C (540 F), the microstructure changes which results in a reduction in impact strength. This effect does not necessarily affect the behaviour of the material at the operating temperature. Contact Sandvik for advice. For pressure vessel applications, 280 C (540 F) is required as maximum.
      Temp.

      C
      Proof Strength
      R
      p0.2
      MPa
      min.
      Temp.

      F
      Proof Strength
      R
      p0.2
      ksi
      min.
      100
      150
      200
      250
      360
      335
      315
      300
      200
      300
      400
      500
      52
      49
      46
      44


Microstructure

In the solution annealed and quenched condition SANMAC SAF 2205 has an austenitic-ferritic microstructure, which is free from grain-boundary carbides and intermetallic phases. The ferrite content is 40 – 60%.


Physical properties

      At 20C (68F), typical values
      Density
      7.8 g/cm3 , 0.28 lb/in3
      Modulus of elasticity
      200x103 MPa, 29x103 ksi
      Specific heat capacity
      480 J/kg C, 0.11 Btu/lbF
      Thermal conductivity
      14 W/m C, 8 Btu/ft hF
      Thermal expansion at 30-100C (86-212F)
      13 x10-6/C, 7.0 x10-6/F


      Figure 3. Thermal expansion, per C (30-100C.)
SANMAC SAF 2205 has a for lower coefficient of thermal expansion than austenitic stainless steels and can therefore possess certain design advantages.


Corrosion resistance

Pitting and crevice corrosion
The pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of a steel is determined primarily by its chromium and molybdenum contents, but also by its nitrogen content as well as its slag composition and slag content. A parameter for comparing the resistance of different steels to pitting is the PRE number (Pitting Resistance Equivalent).

General corrosion

In most media, Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 possesses better resistance to general corrosion than steel of type AISI 316L and 317L. Impurities that increase corrosivity are often present in process solutions of acids. If there is a risk of active corrosion, higher-alloyed austenitic stainless steels should be chosen, e.g. Sandvik 2RK65 or Sandvik Sanicro28.


      Figure 4. Critical pitting temperatures (CPT) for SANMAC SAF 2205. AISI 304 and AISI 316 at varying concentrations of sodium chloride (potentiostatic determination at +300 mV SCE), pH
      6.0.


The PRE is defined as, in weight -%:
PRE = % Cr + 3.3 x % Mo +16 x % N
The PRE number for SAF 2205 and some compared materials are given in the following table.
Alloy% Cr% Mo% NPRE
SANMAC
SAF 2205
Alloy 825
AISI 317L
AISI 316L
22
21.5
18
17
3.2
3.0
3.5
2.2
0.18
-
-
-
>35
31
30
24

The ranking given by the PRE number has been confirmed in laboratory tests. This ranking can generally be used to predict the performance of an alloy in chloride containing environments. Laboratory determinations of critical temperature for initiation of pitting (CPT) at different chloride contents are shown in fig. 4. The chosen testing conditions have yielded results that agree well with practical experience. Thus, Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 can be used at considerably higher temperatures and chloride contents than AISI 304 and AISI 316 without pitting occurring. Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 is therefore far more serviceable in chloride-bearing environments than standard austenitic steels.

Stress corrosion cracking

The standard austenitic steels of the AISI 304L and AISI 316L types are prone to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-bearing solutions at temperatures above 60C (140F). Duplex stainless steels are far less prone to this type of corrosion. Laboratory tests have shown the good resistance to stress corrosion cracking of SANMAC SAF 2205. Results from these tests are presented in fig. 5. The diagram indicates the temperature-chloride range within which Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 and the standard steels AISI 304L and AISI 316L can be used without a risk of stress corrosion cracking.



      Figure 5. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking, laboratory results.

Intergranular corrosion
Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 easily pass intergranular corrosion testing according to ASTM A262 Practice E (Strauss' test).

Erosion corrosion

Steels of the AISI 316 type are attacked by erosion corrosion if exposed to flowing media containing highly abrasive solid particles, e.g. sand, or to media with very high flow velocities. Owing to its combination of high hardness and good corrosion resistance, Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 displays very good resistance under such conditions.

Corrosion fatigue

Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 possesses higher strength and better corrosion resistance than ordinary austenitic stainless steels. Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 therefore also possesses better fatigue strength under corrosive conditions than such steels.


Hot working

Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 is ductile at higher temperatures. The deformation resistance increases with decreasing temperature, and hot working should therefore be carried out at a material temperature of 975-1200C (1787-2318 F).
If the temperature falls below 950C during hot working there is a risk for sigma phase formation, and the material must therefore be reheated.
Hot working of SANMAC SAF 2205 should be followed by solution annealing and quenching in accordance with the recommendations given for heat treatment.


Heat treatment

Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 stock programme bars are delivered in solution annealed and quenched condition. Billets are normally delivered in hot-worked and air-cooled condition, but can be solution annealed and quenched when demanded. If additional heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended:
Solution annealing at 1020 – 1100C (1870 – 2010F) followed by quenching.


Welding

The weldability of Sandvi SANMAC SAF 2205 is good. Suitable welding methods are manual metal-arc welding with covered electrodes or gas-shielded arc welding. Welding should be undertaken within the heat input range 0.5 – 2.5 kJ/mm. Max. interpass temperature is 250C (482F). Preheating or post-weld heat treatment is normally not necessary.
Matching filler metals are recommended in order to obtain a weld metal with optimum corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. For gas-shielded arc welding, we recommend Sandvik 22.8.3.L, and for manual metal-arc welding the covered electrode Sandvik 22.9.3.LR. Flux cored wire 22.9.3.LT is also available. These filler metals can also be used for welding SAF 2205 to carbon steels, stainless steels and nickel alloys. The covered electrode Sandvik 23.12.2.LR and the welding wire Sandvik 22.15.3.L, both of type AWS 309Mo with low carbon content, can also be used for this purpose.


Machining

Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 has very good machining properties. In this material machinability has been improved without jeopardising properties such as corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. The non-metallic inclusions in SANMAC steels are of great significance to improved machinability. In addition to sulphides, Sandvik SANMAC steels contain oxide inclusions, which improve chip breaking and reduce tool wear.
Fig. 6 shows the ranges within which you can choose cutting data to obtain a tool life of 7 minutes in the duplex material Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205. The diagram is applicable for short cutting times. For long, continuous cuts, the cutting speeds should be reduced somewhat.

The lowest recommended cutting data is determined by the tendency of the material to stick to the insert (built-up edge), although the integrity of insert clamping and the stability of the machine are also of great significance.

The machining ranges are limited by different wear mechanisms. Once the type of wear has been determined, the cutting data can be optimized with the aid of the diagram.

Recommended insert and cutting data for turning of SANMAC SAF 2205 (starting values)
Insert
Cutting data
Application
GeometryGradeFeedCutting speed
mm/rev.in./rev.m/minft/min
MFGC20250.150.006180590Finishing
MFGC20250.220.009150490Medium machining
MMGC20350.250.010110360Rough machining (roughing a low cutting speeds).

Turning in SANMAC SAF 2205 duplex steel is considerably demanding than in the SANMAC austenitic material. This is due mainly to the higher strength of SANMAC SAF 2205, as well as its greater tendency to adhere to the tool.


      Figure 6. Cutting data recommendations for SANMAC SAF 2205. GC 2025 and GC 2035 refer ti Sandvik Coromant cemented-carbide insert grades.
The machining ranges are limited by different wear mechanisms. Once the type of wear has been determined, the cutting data can be optimized with the aid of the diagram.


Applications

Due to its excellent corrosion properties, Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 is a highly suitable material for service in environments containing chlorides and hydrogen sulphide. The material is suitable for use in production tubing and flowlines for the extraction of oil and gas from sour wells, in refineries and in process solutions contaminated with chlorides. Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 is particularly suitable for heat exchangers where chloride-bearing water or brackish water is used as a cooling medium. The steel is also suitable for use in dilute sulphuric acid solutions and for the handling of organic acids, e.g. acetic acid and mixtures.
  • The high strength of Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 makes the material an attractive alternative to the austenitic steels in structures subjected to heavy loads.
  • The good mechanical and corrosion properties make Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 an economical choice in many applications by reducing the life cycle cost of the equipment.
  • The good machining properties make Sandvik SANMAC SAF 2205 a superior alternative to standard 2205 grades and other duplex grades for applications subjected to all types of machining by extended tool life and possibilities to increase productivity.


    Further information

    Our data sheets and substantial technical information about our grades and products are available on the Sandvik Steel web-site www.steel.sandvik.com. The following printed matter can be ordered via the web-site or from our nearest Sandvik office.
        General information
        S-029-ENG
                Stainless steels and cutting tools for better machining (Brochure)
        S-02909-ENG
                Stainless bar steel – Stock programme (Pocket card)
        S-030-ENG
                Semifinished products (Brochure) S-0301-ENG Billets for forgings (Brochure)
        S-110-ENG
                Pipe – tube – hollow bar, seamless standard programme in stainless (Brochure)
        S-120-ENG
                Duplex stainless steels – fighting corrosion worldwide (Brochure)
        S-1874-ENG
                Sandvik SAF 2205 – Duplex stainless steel (Data sheet)
        S-33-38-ENG
                LCC calculations and design examples for duplex stainless steels (Lecture)
        S-51-51-ENG
                Duplex stainless steels for demanding applications (Lecture)
        S-51-52-ENG
                LCC examples – Sandvik's stainless steel tubing (Lecture)
        S-51-53-ENG
                The Sandvik Duplex Family of stainless steels. Summary of data (Lecture)
        S-51-54-ENG
                Physical metallurgy and some characteristic properties of the Sandvik duplex stainless steels (Lecture)

                    Mechanical properties
        S-32-27-ENG
                Applicability of duplex stainless steels above 300C (Lecture)
        S-32-30-ENG
                Mechanical properties of Sandvik duplex stainless steels (Lecture)

        Machinability
        S-0291-ENG
                Cutting data for stainless steel (Brochure)
        S-51-47-ENG
                Machinability of duplex stainless steel (Lecture)
        S-51-48-ENG
                Machining charts for stainless steel (Lecture)

        Corrosion
        S-33-43-ENG
                Chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steel. Models, test methods and experience (Lecture)
        S-33-46-ENG
                Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels in organic acids (Lecture)
        S-33-47-ENG
                Corrosion properties of duplex stainless steels. General corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion (Lecture)
        S-51-32-ENG
                SCC resistance of stainless steels – laboratory data vs practical experience (Lecture)

        Fabrication
        S-51-33-ENG
                Fabricating ferritic-austenitic stainless steels (Lecture)
        S-51-39-ENG
                Fabrication and practical experience of duplex stainless steels (Lecture)

        Welding
        S-1252-ENG
                Your guide to easy welding of duplex stainless steel (Brochure)
        S-91-45-ENG
                Influence of different welding conditions on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Sandvik SAF 2205 (UNS S31803) (Lecture)
        S-91-57-ENG
                Welding practice for the Sandvik duplex stainless steels SAF 2304, SAF 2205 and SAF 2507 (Lecture)

        Process industry
        S-12136-ENG
                Tough stuff for heat exchangers (Brochure)
        S-51-55-ENG
                Applications of duplex stainless steels in the chemical and petrochemical industry (Lecture)
        S-52-83-ENG
                Stainless steels for eliminating chloride-induced corrosion in ammonia/urea plants (Lecture)
        S-52-85-ENG
                Duplex stainless steels in the chemical industry (Lecture)

        Oil & gas
        S-13323-ENG
                Engineering diagram Sanicro 28-110, Sanicro 28-130, SAF 2205-130 (Brochure)
        S-13324-ENG
                Effect of pH on the applicability of Sandvik SAF 2205 (Brochure)
        S-13325-ENG
                SCC resistance in H2S / chloride environments of Sandvik SAF 2205 (Brochure)
        S-133-ENG
                Stainless steel products for oil and gas production (Brochure)
        S-134-ENG
                Speciality stainless steels in oil refineries (Brochure)
        S-252-ENG
                Wirelines (Brochure)
        S-33-44-ENG
                Testing and selection of duplex stainless steels for sour environments (Lecture)
        S-33-45-ENG
                Hydrogen embrittlement of duplex stainless steels in connexion with cathodic protection (Lecture)
        S-58-10-ENG
                The applicability of duplex stainless steels in sour environments (Lecture)
        S-58-11-ENG
                Coated duplex pipes for TOGI project" (Lecture) Reference lists
        S-12911-ENG
                Sandvik SAF 2205 – The traditional duplex stainless steel
        S-13332-ENG
                Sandvik SAF 2205 – References for the oil & gas industry, downhole applications
        S-13334-ENG
                Sandvik Sanicro 28 and SAF 22Cr. References for the oil & gas industry, downhole applications
        S-12136-ENG
                Tough stuff for heat exchangers (Brochure)
        S-51-55-ENG
                Applications of duplex stainless steels in the chemical and petrochemical industry (Lecture)
        S-52-83-ENG
                Stainless steels for eliminating chloride-induced corrosion in ammonia/urea plants (Lecture)
        S-52-85-ENG
                Duplex stainless steels in the chemical industry (Lecture) oil & gas industry, downhole applications

        Pulp & paper
        S-54-23-ENG
                High-strength stainless steels and composite tubes for the pulp and paper industry (Lecture)

        Reference lists
        S-12911-ENG
                Sandvik SAF 2205 – The traditional duplex stainless steel
        S-13332-ENG
                Sandvik SAF 2205 – References for the oil & gas industry, downhole applications
        S-13334-ENG
                Sandvik Sanicro 28 and SAF 22Cr. References for the oil & gas industry, downhole applications


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